Introduction to Audio Preservation

Syllabus Fall 2015

The University of Texas at Austin

School of Information

INF 392L Introduction to Audio Preservation and Reformatting

Instructor: Sarah Cunningham

Office: UTA 5.104

Audiovisual Archive LBJ Library 2313 Red River

Office Hours: by appointment (512) 721-0156

Unique number: 27920

Course Time: Tuesdays 6:00 – 9:00 Classroom: UTA 1.212

Instructor email: shcunningham@mail.utexas.edu

 

Lab hours: Will be scheduled during the semester and by appointment
Description: An introduction to the preservation of audio through:

– A chronological examination of the development and history of recording

– A study of issues in the care and preservation of recordings

– The economics of in-house vs. “outsourced” audio reformatting

– “Hands-on” projects to create digital surrogates
Objectives: This class will introduce students to the preservation of sound recordings. Students will gain an understanding of:

– The various types of sound recordings and formats

– Current best practices and methods for preserving recordings

– The professional communities and organizations involved with the preservation of sound recordings

– Methods to predict the future of the field

Prerequisites – None

Class participation: Students are required to complete the assigned readings, participate in class discussions and activities each week. Each student will be responsible for leading two class discussions during the semester. The participation points will be awarded per class period @ 2 points per class period.

Class website:

This course has a Canvas page. It can be accessed at

courses.utexas.edu
Required Printed and Online Texts:
Brylawski, Sam. (2015) ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation. Council on Library and Information Resources. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub164/pub164.pdf
Sterne, Jonathan. (2003) The Audible Past: Cultural origins of sound reproduction. Durham: Duke University Press. – (also available as an ebook through the UT Library)
Morton, David. (2004) Sound recording: The life story of a technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Casey, Mike and Bruce Gordon. (2007)  “Sound Directions: Best Practices for Audio Preservation.” In Sound Directions: Digital Preservation and Access for Global Audio Heritage. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 2007.http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/papersPresent/sd_bp_07.pdf
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives. (2009) IASA-TC04 guidelines on the production and preservation of digital audio objects: Standards, recommended practices, and strategies. Second Edition. Auckland Park, South Africa: International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, Technical Committee. http://www.iasa-web.org/tc04/audio-preservation
All others readings are available through the UT Libraries website, the class Canvas page, or via other Internet resources.
Deadlines – All students are expected to turn assignments in at the beginning of the class period of the day that it is due. If a student must miss a class, the assignment must be sent via e-mail to me 1 hour before the class begins.

A letter grade will be deducted for each day an assignment is late.

September 1 – Introduction & Review of the Literature in the Field
Cunningham, Sarah (2009) Audio Preservation Bibliography. National Recording Preservation Board of the Library of Congress.

http://www.loc.gov/rr/record/nrpb/nrpb-presbib.html
September 8 – The State of Recorded Sound Preservation in the United States:

A National Legacy at Risk in the Digital Age

Peoples, Curtis and Marsha Maguire. “Preserving Audio.” ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation. Ed. Samuel Brylawski, Maya Lerman, Kathlin Smith, Robin Pike. CLiR 2015. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub164/pub164.pdf

Brylawski, Sam. (2003) Proceedings from Sound Savings: Preserving Audio Collections: Review of Audio Collection Preservation Trends and Challenges. Austin, TX. http://www.arl.org/preserv/sound_savings_proceedings/
Ross, Alex. (2005) The Record Effect: How technology has transformed the sound of music. The New Yorker.  http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2005/06/06/the-record-effect
National Recording Preservation Board (2010) The State of Recorded Sound Preservation in the United States: National Legacy at Risk in the Digital Age

http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub148/pub148.pdf
Further Reading:

Hill, Elizabeth. (2012) The Preservation of Sound Recordings. Music Reference Services Quarterly. Volume 15, Issue 2.

https://utexas.instructure.com/courses/1131316/files
September 15  – History of Audio, part one
Sterne, Jonathan. (2003) The Audible Past: Cultural origins of sound reproduction. Durham: Duke University Press. “Hello” and Chapter 1. (pp 1 – 87)

Akiyamam Mitchell and Sterne, Jonathan. “The Recording that Never Wanted to be Heard and Other Stories of Sonification,” The Handbook of Sound Studies, eds. Karin Bijsterveld and Trevor Pinch. New York: Oxford University Press (2011). Pages 544 – 560 (In the “files” section on Canvas)
Morton, David. (2004) Sound recording: The life story of a technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Chapters 1 – 6.

Milner, Greg (2009) Perfecting Sound Forever: An Aural History of Recorded Music. Faber and Faber, Inc. New York. Chapter 3 and 4. (In the “files” section on Canvas)
Wurtzler, Steve J. (2007) Electric sounds: Technological change and the rise of corporate mass media. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-69 and 121-168. (In the “files” section on Canvas)

September 22 – History of Audio, part two
Assignment #1 Class Presentations [Format]
Behl, Harrison.  “Audio Formats: Characteristics and Deterioration.” ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation. Ed. Samuel Brylawski, Maya Lerman, Kathlin Smith, Robin Pike. CLiR 2015. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub164/pub164.pdf
Sterne (Chapter 2)

Morton (Chapters 7-10)

September 29 – Best Practices for Audio Preservation  – Special Guest Speaker – Steve Kantner
Casey, Mike & Gordon, Bruce. (2007) Sound directions: Best practices for audio preservation. http://dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/papersPresent/index.shtml
Chase, Will.  “Preservation Reformatting.” ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation.2015..  Ed. Samuel Brylawski, Maya Lerman, Kathlin Smith, Robin Pike. CLiR 2015. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub164/pub164.pdf
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives. (2009) IASA-TC04 guidelines on the production and preservation of digital audio objects: Standards, recommended practices, and strategies. Second Edition. Auckland Park, South Africa: International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives, Technical Committee. http://www.iasa-web.org/tc04/audio-preservation
The Producer’s and Engineer’s Wing: Delivery Recommendations for Master Recording (PDF):

http://www.grammy.org/files/pages/deliveryrecommendations.pdf
Harvey, Ross and Martha Mahard. (2014) The Preservation Management Handbook: A 21st Century Guide for Libraries, Archives and Museums. Page 131– 132 and 223 – 249.

Available as an e-book from the UT Libraries. http://utxa.eblib.com.ezproxy.lib.utexas.edu/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1674230&echo=1&userid=ZW8c0wscJi4%3d&tstamp=1408640790&id=E4972495511774CB0E5175FB2BB26B6FB435D1F9
Further reading

Sterne (Chapter 3)

Morton (Chapters 11 – 17)

October 6 – Preservation Policies
Nelson-Strauss, Brenda. (1991) Preservation policies and priorities for recorded sound collections. Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association, 48(2), 425-436.

To retrieve this article, go to JSTOR from the UT Libraries homepage (click on Databases and Indexes and choose “J”) then search for article.
Frost, Hannah. (2003) Proceedings from Sound Savings: Preserving Audio Collections: Surveying Sound Recording Collections. Austin, TX.

http://www.arl.org/storage/documents/publications/sound-savings.pdf
Danielson, Virginia, Cohen, Elizabeth, & Seeger, Anthony. (2001) Folk heritage collections in crisis. (CLIR Publication No 96) Washington DC: Library of Congress. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub96/contents.html
Lerman,Maya. “Appraisals and Priorities.” ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation. 22015. Ed. Samuel Brylawski, Maya Lerman, Kathlin Smith, Robin Pike. CLiR 2015. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub164/pub164.pdf
Further Reading

Columbia University Survey Instrument for Audio and Moving Image Collections

http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/services/preservation/audiosurvey.html

October 13 – Care and Handling
Arton, Carla. “Care and Maintenance.” ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation. 2015. Ed. Samuel Brylawski, Maya Lerman, Kathlin Smith, Robin Pike. CLiR. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub164/pub164.pdf
Pickett, A. G. & Lemcoe, M.M. (1959) Preservation and storage of sound recordings. Washington, D.C: Library of Congress. (int “files” on Canvas)
Hess, Richard L. (2010) Richard L. Hess’s tape restoration resources.

http://www.richardhess.com/tape/index.htm
Van Malssen.  “Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Response.”  ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation. 2015. Ed. Samuel Brylawski, Maya Lerman, Kathlin Smith, Robin Pike. CLiR 2015. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub164/pub164.pdf
Further Reading
St-Laurent, Gilles.(1996) The care and handling of recorded sound materials. http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/byauth/st-laurent/care.html
Byers, Fred R. (2003) Care and handling of CDs and DVDs: A guide for librarians and archivists. http://www.clir.org/PUBS/reports/pub121/contents.html
Bogart, John W.C. Van. (1995) Magnetic tape storage and handling. Washington, DC: The Commission on Preservation and Access. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub54/index.html

October 20 – Digital Audio for Sound Archives First Project Due (cassette)

Paper –Case Study Due

Class Presentations

October 27 – Assignment #3 Cassette Transfer Due

Fells, Nick, Donachy, Pauline, & Owen, Catherine. (2002) Creating digital audio resources: a guide to good practice. Oxford: Oxbow. http://www.ahds.ac.uk/creating/guides/audio-resources/GGP_Audio_Contents.htm
National Initiative for a Networked Cultural Heritage. (2002) The NINCH guide to good practice in the digital representation and management of cultural heritage materials: Audio/video capture and management.  http://www.nyu.edu/its/humanities/ninchguide/VII/
Rumsey, Francis & McCormick, Tim. (2002) Sound and recording: An introduction. Oxford: Focal.

Chapter 1 (look in the class documents area on blackboard)
Shuker, Roy. Understanding Popular Music Culture.

Chapter 2 “Pump Up the Volume.”  Routledge.

http://utxa.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=166144

November  3 – Audio Technology
Research Paper Outlines Due
An Introduction to Music Technology [electronic resource]. 2014

Hosken, Dan. Hoboken : Taylor and Francis, 2014.  2nd ed.

Electronic Resource page 81 – 103.
Sound Directions

http://dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/papersPresent/index.shtml
Digital Audio part two

Rumsey & McCormick (Chapter 8) on Canvas

November 10 -Copyright and New Tools for Preservation
Butler, Brandon.  “Audio Preservation: The Legal Context.” ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation. 2015. Ed. Samuel Brylawski, Maya Lerman, Kathlin Smith, Robin Pike. CLiR 2015. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub164/pub164.pdf

United States Copyright Office. (2015) Orphan Works and Mass Digitization.

http://copyright.gov/orphan/reports/orphan-works2015.pdf
Brooks, Tim. Survey of Reissues of U.S. Recordings. Washington, DC: Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress, August 2004. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/reports.html.

http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/reports/pub133
Besek, June M. (2005) Copyright issues relevant to digital preservation and dissemination of pre-1972 commercial sound recordings by libraries and archives (CLIR Publication No 135) Washington, DC: Library of Congress. Retrieved from

http://www.clir.org/pubs/abstract/pub135abst.html
http://www.copyright.gov/docs/sound/ – click on” Pre-1972 Sound Recordings Report.”

November 17 – Cataloging audio collections in the digital format
Maguire, Marsha. “Description of Audio Recordings.” ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation. 2015. Ed. Samuel Brylawski, Maya Lerman, Kathlin Smith, Robin Pike. CLiR.http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub164/pub164.pdf
Otto, Jane J. “A Sound Strategy for Preservation: Adapting Audio Engineering Society Technical Metadata for Use in Multimedia Repositories,” Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 48:5 (2010): 403-422

http://mss3.libraries.rutgers.edu/dlr/showfed.php?pid=rutgers-lib:26685
Seeger, Anthony. (1986). The Role of Sound Archives in Ethnomusicology Today. Ethnomusicology, 30(2), 261-276.To retrieve this article, go to JSTOR from UT Libraries homepage (click on Databases and Indexes and choose “J”) then search for article.
Archives for the Future:

http://www.seagullindia.com/archive/download.html

Read the following chapters (PDF):

Technology for the Future – Dietrich Schuller (chapter 2)

Final Workshop Documents (chapter 17)

The First Debate: Archivists versus Administrators (chapter 18)

Debate Between Performers, Researchers and Archivists (chapter 19)

Note: you will need to download the entire book then locate the chapters.

Read the Debates carefully – we will have a debate in class based on the roles outlined in the reading for this week
Last class day – Reel to Reel

Bigourdan, Jean-Louis. The Preservation of Magnetic Tape Collections: A Perspective IPI

http://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/shtml_sub/NEHTapeFinalReport.pdf

November 24 – The Future of Audio Preservation and Review
– Class Presentation of Papers

Disc Transfer Due

Dec 1  –Final Exam

Bring “Blue Book” or at least 15 sheets of paper for the exam.
Papers will be graded on: Research, Content, Writing and Presentation
Students that need assistance with writing may visit the Sanger Learning Center for feedback, tips to improve writing skills and sessions with a writing tutor:

http://www.utexas.edu/ugs/slc/grad
A Plus/Minus Grading system for graduate students taking graduate courses will be used as outlined: http://www.utexas.edu/ogs/student_services/academic_policies/plus_minus.html

Policy on Academic Dishonesty

The University of Texas at Austin defines academic dishonesty as cheating, plagiarism, unauthorized collaboration, falsifying academic records, and any act designed to avoid participating honestly in the learning process. Scholastic dishonesty also includes, but is not limited to, providing false or misleading information to receive a postponement or an extension on a test, quiz or other assignment, and submission of essentially the same written assignment for two courses without the prior permission of faculty members.

Students should be aware that all required writing assignments may be submitted to a plagiarism-detection tool such as Turnitin.com. Turnitin is a software resource intended to address plagiarism and improper citation. The software works by cross-referencing submitted materials with an archived database of journals, essay, newspaper articles, books, and other published work. In addition, other methods may be used to determine the originality of the paper. This software is not intended to replace or substitute for the faculty member’s judgement regarding detection of plagiarism.

University Honor Code:

http://www.utexas.edu/about-ut/mission-core-purpose-honor-code

By accepting this syllabus and participating in the course, you have agreed to these guidelines and must adhere to them. Students who violate University rules on scholastic dishonesty are subject to disciplinary penalties, including the possibility of failure in the course and/or dismissal from the University.

For more information on scholastic dishonesty, please visit the Student Judicial Services web site at http://deanofstudents.utexas.edu/sjs/

Policy on Students with Disabilities

The University of Texas at Austin provides upon request appropriate accommodation for qualified students with disabilities. Any student with a documented disability (physical or cognitive) who requires academic accommodations should contact the Services for Students with Disabilities area of the Office of the Dean of Students at 471-6259 (voice) or 471-4641 (TTY for users who are deaf or hard of hearing) as soon as possible to request an official letter outlining authorized accommodations.

http://www.utexas.edu/diversity/ddce/ssd/

Religious holidays

By UT Austin policy, you must notify me of your pending absence at least fourteen days prior to the date of observance of a religious holy day.  If you must miss a class, an examination, a work assignment, or a project in order to observe a religious holy day, you will be given an opportunity to complete the missed work within a reasonable time after the absence.”

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